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Monotheistic as referenced in 5:73; 112:1-4, Denies the Trinity in 5:73

Jesus is not God - 5:17, 75

Jesus was not crucified at all - 4:157

Jesus did not rise from the dead - various Muslim accounts

Jesus was not the Son of God but rather a "prophet" - 9:30 - only 1 of 25 prophets listed in the Qur'an and 1 of 125,000 in the history of Islam. God Has No Sons

The Holy Spirit is the angel Gabriel - 2:97; 16:102

Salvation by sincerity and works - 3:135; 7-8-9; 21:47; 49:14; 66:8-9 also by dying for the cause of Allah - Hadith, Sura 3:157

The Devil, Satan, is not a fallen angel, but a fallen Jinn (Genie) - 2:34; 7:12; 15:27; 55:15

Man is basically good - Typical cleric teaching (contradicts a buried passage in Sura 12:53 which agrees w/ the Bible

Disciples declare themselves Muslims - 5:111

Worship on Friday
- 62:9

No Miracles recorded, except they claim the Qur'an is a miracle

Makes no prophecies

Written by 1 man over 23 years


Monotheistic, Trinitarian, as referenced in Isa 43:10; 44:6-8; Matt. 28:19; 2 Cor 13:14

Jesus is God incarnate - Colossians 2:9

Jesus was crucified on a cross - 1 Peter 2:24

Jesus rose from the dead - John 2:19-20

Jesus was the only Son of God - Mark 1:1

Holy Spirit, 3rd person in the Godhead. He will bear witness of Jesus - John 14:26; 15:26

Salvation by grace through faith - Ephesians 2:8,9

The Devil is a fallen angel
- Isaiah 14:12-15; Created by Jesus - Col 1:15,16

Man is basically evil (fallen sinner)
- Romans 3:23

Disciples were followers of Christ (Christians) - Acts 11:26

Worship on Sabbath - Exodus 20; Then later on Sunday - Rom 14:5-6; Acts 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:1-2

Miracles, numerous are recorded

Makes numerous prophecies

Written by 40+ authors over 1500 years - reads as one book

The Torah, Talmud, and Midrash (Judaism):

Guru Granth Sahib Writings (Sikhism)

The Five Classics, The Four Books (Confucianism)

Tao Te King (The Way and Its Power - Taoism)

Theravada, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Ahidhanuna Pitaka, Mahayana, Dhammadada, (Buddhism)

The Humanist Manifesto, Das Kapital, Origin of The Species (Humanism/Atheism)

Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita (Hinduism)

The Bible (Christianity):

I. Manuscript Evidence For Scripture
A. New Testament – 24,633 manuscripts for the NT alone dating back to late 1st century
I. Oldest is John Rylands fragment of John (AD130)
II. Codex Vaticanus 325 A.D. Most of entire bible – can be viewed today for 20 minutes
III. Codex Sinaiticus 350 A.D. almost all NT; half OT
a. Discovered by Dr. Constantin Von Tischendorf at Mt. Sinai monastery in 1859
b. Tischy travelled the near east in 1844 in search of biblical mss. He visited St. Catherines monastery and saw 2 baskets of
leaves ready to stoke the fire. The leaves had ancient uncials written on them. He sternly warned the monks that the leaves
were too precious to stoke fires with and they permitted him to keep the 43 leaves he had recovered (I Chron, Jer, Neh,
Ezra) He deposited them in the museum at Leipzig
c. Tischy returned at a later date amid suspicion from these monks. He offered the steward of the monastery a copy of his
personally published Septuagint. The steward remarked, “I too have a copy of the septuagint” and revealed this, the oldest
near-complete codex Sinaiticus
IV. Codex Alexandrinus 400 A.D. – nearly the whole bible. written in Greek while in Egypt
B. Old Testament
I. Mainly use Masoretic text (900 A.D.) but is verified by Septuagint (LXX) and by the Dead
Sea Scrolls (90 A.D.) and other available mss.
a. LXX (3rd cent. BC) – Hellenistic translation of the Hebrew Canon
b. Dead Sea Scrolls – (D.S.S.) A.D. 68 found in Qumran caves near Jerusalem by a
shepherd boy chasing a goat.
c. Masoretic text – A.D. 916
d. transcribing process – they would count every letter from front to point of writing would count every letter of every book, a hairline separation between letters. If the king addresses you while transcribing, ignore him. Not one yod is to be off. Fully bathe and dress in Jewish dress, special ink black only –per the Talmud

II. Archaeological Evidence For Scripture
A. 25,000 sites associated with the OT period have been located/excavated in Bible lands. They appear as mounds of earth known as ‘Tels’.
B. Kings names in hinge sockets, sepulchres etc are ways archaeologists set time periods
C. The flood – lists of kings from Sumerian scribes (200BC) cataloguing kings and their successive dynasties, times, and tenure showed that an inscribed stone foundation was laid by an unknown kin a few miles from Ur. This list categorizes his dynasty as the ‘3rd after the flood’ 3100 years BC and 1000 years before Abraham.
D. Abram, Ur of the Chaldees – Critics claimed that Ur did not exist (they hadn’t found it) and that the culture was unrealistic for someone from this area.
i. UNTIL: 1933 when a palace of Mari was found and 20,000 cuneiform tablets dated at about 2500 BC (same as Abram)
ii. A few miles away, city of Nuzi, more tablets found describing life exactly as Abraham’s
E. Pentateuch – critics claimed the books could not have been written by Moses because the priestly legislation was far too complex for the time and that writing itself would not have been available to Moses.
i. UNTIL: 1964-74 when the 17000 ‘Ebla’ tablets were found in N. Syria dated appx. 2250 BC – nearly 1000 years before Moses, laws, customs, and events were recorded verifying the ability to write and have complex legislation
ii. Critics also claimed that the account in Gen 14 of Abraham’s victory over the Chedolaomer
and Mesopotamian kings was fictitious and that the 5 cities mentioned never existed.
iii. UNTIL: the above ‘Ebla’ tablets which record the cities in the exact order as in Gen. and describe them as flourishing prior to the disaster in ch14.
F. Many others: Walls of Jericho, evidence of ‘one language’ of Babel, etc.
G. Luke’s census – NT critics of Luke say he was wrong in that no census was taken, Quirinius was not governor, and no one had to return to their homeland.
i. UNTIL: archaeological discoveries revealed the existence of a Roman census that took place every 14 yrs and began under Augustus in 23BC or 9BC (mentioned in Luke)
ii. A plaque in N. Syria with the inscription of Quirinius receiving his post (an ‘additional term’ as Josephus reported)
iii. A papyrus was found from this time period which instructed people to ‘return to their governments and the tilled land to which they belonged’
iv. Coins found show the existence of Felix at the time of the apostle Paul, pool of Siloam, pool of Bethesda.

III. Predictive Prophecy As Evidence For The Reliability of The Scriptures
A. Jesus 61 major prophecies, 8 of which include:
I. Born at Bethlehem Mic 5:2 fulfilled Lk 2:4-7
II. Preceeded by a messenger Isa 40:3 fulfilled Math 3:1,2
III. Would enter Jerusalem by Donkey Zec 9:9 fulfilled Luke 19:35-37
IV. Betrayed by friend Psa 41:9 fulfilled Math 26
V. Sold for 30 peices silver: Zec 11:12 fulfilled Math 26:15
VI. Dumb before accusers: Isa 53:7 fulfilled Math 27:12
VII. Hands and Feet Pierced: Psa 22:16 fulfilled Luke 23:33
VIII. Crucified with thieves: Isa 53:12 fulfilled Math 27:38
B. Destruction of Tyre (New York City of its day) Eze 26:3-21 predicts the following
I. v8. “Nebuchadnezzar to come against mainland Tyre” fulfilled 3 years after prophecy.
A 13 yr siege resulted in Tyre submitting to Babylon suzerainty. When Nebby finally broke the gates of Tyre down, he found a deserted city. They had escaped by ship to an island off the coast. (Nebby didn’t have a navy) The people of Tyre fled to an island off the coast where they remained a powerful fortified city for 200yrs. In a rage, Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the mainland city
II. v3 “Throw the debris into the water” fulfilled: Alexander the Great, also did not have a navy so he collected the rubble and debris left by Babylon and threw it into the sea to build a causeway out to the island.
III. v4 “Make her a bare rock; flat like the top of a rock” fulfilled: Alexander the Great’s causeway to the island, left the city site bare and flat (which it is to this day)
IV. v3 “Many nations against Tyre” fulfilled: in 332 B.C. by Alexander the great who had recently failed to build a causeway due to attacks on his workers. He formed a navy from surrounding port cities (Sidon, Rhodes, Lycia) to sail against Tyre
V. v5 “Fisherman will spread nets over the site” fulfilled: Fisherman today frequent the
area to spread their nets to dry as it is an ideal location for this activity.
VI. v14 “Never to be rebuilt” The city continued to be built and rebuilt after Alexanderbut was utterly destroyed in 1291 AD by the Muslims when it was occupied by Christians. It has remained destroyed to this present day. Even though 10 million gallons of fresh water pour from this ‘port’ location into the sea!
VII. v21 “Never to be found again” – The entire renown of Tyre now exists only in a shellfish and purple dye” – Pliny the elder (1st century A.D).

IV. Scientific And Statistic Probability as It Relates to Scripture19 -
A. Peter Stoner’s “Science Speaks” rules out coincidence via science of probability.
I. Stoner took 8 of the fulfilled prophecies of Jesus (above) and found the odds of one man fulfilling only the above 8 (not all 61) is 1 in 1017 (100,000,000,000,000,000)
II. This is comparable to covering the entire state of Texas with silver dollars TWO FEET DEEP, marking one dollar only, stirring the entire state of dollars and then asking a person to enter the state at any point and pick the EXACT one.
III. For one man to fulfill just 48 of the 61 major prophecies is calculated at odds of 1 in 10157
IV. Stoner’s Tyre calculations – 1 in 75,000,000 for the 7 Tyre prophecies ‘coincidently’ coming to pass.
V. Stoner’s methodology: explained via Philistine (Amos 1:8), Gaza (Jer 47:5), and Ashkelon (zep 2:4-7);
• chance of Philistines vanishing in 1 in 5 x
• chance of gaza being sand covered 1 in 100 x 5
• chance of ashkelon becoming desolate x5 chance of ashkelon being a sheep country = 1.2 x 106 (1 in 12,000)

Practical Biblical Interpretation in ten general rules20

1. Interpret the Bible literally (from the words, not foolishly wooden), like any other book.
Read everything in context.
2. Apply yourself to the story/teaching, using empathy. Ask “Why does God do/say this?”
3. Use passages of teaching to interpret historical accounts, but do not play “Paul vs. Jesus”.
4. Use the
explicit to interpret the implicit; use the clear to interpret the obscure.
5. Determine
definitions carefully. Note multiple possible definitions of one word.
Do not always pour ultimate meaning into each word.
6. Note parallelism. Use nearby parallel verses to interpret a difficult verse.
7. Distinguish between
proverb and law; distinguish between case law (if…then)
and direct law (You shall…).
8. Recognize both the spirit and the letter of the law.
9. Be careful with parables—they often present time-specific analogies. Look for one central point.
10. Be careful with predictive prophecy; look for explanations elsewhere.
See also Knowing Scripture by R.C. Sproul

VIII. Abbreviated Bibliography
1 - Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance
2 - NKJV (Transliteration) Bible
3 - NIV (Paraphrase) Bible
4 - A.W. Tozer, “Knowledge of the Holy”
5 – Dennis McCallum, “An Approach to Christian Apologetics” , Xenos Church publication
6 – Van Gorden, Kurt “Why Christians Believe the Trinity”, Jude 3 Missions publication
7 – KJV (Poetic/transliteration) Bible “are there” is implied...not in Textus Receptus
8 – Craig, William Lane “A Reasonable Faith”
9 – Shelley, Bruce “Church History in Plain Language”
10 – Edwards, Betty “Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain” pp.
11 – Lavey, Anton “Satanic Bible”
12 – Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary 2nd ed., 1983
13 – Cowan, Stephen B.. Ed. “5 Views on Apologetics”, 2000
14 – Geisler, Norman “Evolution Video Series”’
15 –
16 - Cowan, Stephen B article review “5 Views on Apologetics,

17 - Drurie, Mark Phd. article “appendix: Historical Evidence for Jesus (Yeshua)”
18 – Haanagraff, Hendrik “Christianity In Crisis” Appendix
19 – Mcdowell, Josh “Evidence That Demands a Verdict”
20 – Whitchurch, Joseph B. Teaching material for AFTHAM (Apologetics For The HeartAnd Mind) 1995-97
21 - Concerned Christians, “Witness to Mormons” , 1983
22. – Utah Lighthouse Ministry, article

What Is the Difference Between The Bible and The Qur'an?

sources: Bible (NKJV);;