What Does A Biblical Christian Believe?
Qu’ran vs The Bible vs The Vedas vs The Eight-Fold Path

Syncretists might claim that the god of the Qu’ran is the same God of the Bible or that the God of the Bible is the same as the 33 million gods of Hindu writings - but are they? A cursory comparison would show them to be decidedly and diametrically opposed to one another while espousing and promulgating contradictory ideas about themselves, who they are as ‘god’ and how to relate to them. Click the headings below and investigate for yourself:

Animism: Oral Tradition - No Definitive Writings

Verbal tradition
Animism is so widely varied, orally transmitted, and primarily belonging to nomadic, tribes with unwritten tradition, that no authoritative writings exist (nor have ever been deemed necessary by practicing Animists).

Essentially, to pursue wisdom or understanding within the animist construct, one would simply consult the shaman or “high priest/holy man” of the tribe and either he would speak from his understanding or would consult the spirits much like a psychic medium might do today. This “knowledge” might be gained by reading a series of bones dropped in a specific pattern (c.f. I-Ching of Confucianism) or by sifting through the shapes and formations of the entrails of a dead pig or other animal, etc.

This, to the animist, would accomplish a similar purpose to that of a Buddhist or Hindu who seek to gain the “meaning” of a particular situation or of life itself. Even though Hinduism has its own series of writings, still the Hindu priest plays the primary role for providing wisdom and spiritual authority of life.

The three world religions which rely primarily on sacred writings for authority are: Christianity - Bible; Islam - Qu-ran; and Confucianism - 9 books; ancient Judaism would have fit into this category however, modern Rabbinic Judaism would not, as it primarily relies on the wisdom of Rabbis and Rabbinical tradition (c.f. Roman Catholic Christianity - Popes, Councils)

Atheism: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races

Darwin, Marx - Prophets of Atheism

On The Origin Of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle For Life:

Charles Darwin wrote a theoretical account of how he supposed all life came about on earth. Through the ages, it has been attributed to him as an “original scientific work” when history reveals that it was neither original (it was primarily based on the writing “Zoinomia” written by his grandfather) nor scientific (Darwin had no background in naturalism but rather, his training was in theology).

Darwin’s work gave atheists a long missing response to a question that plagued them, namely, “How did we get here and why are we here if there isn’t a God?”. This writing provided a faith-based answer for them to the first part of the question, or so they thought. It did not, however, provide any answer whatsoever to the latter half of the question, “why”. Darwin’s theory was quickly propped up by the pseudo-scientific community as “fact” even though it has never and can never be scientifically proven. The dating of fossils which are touted as “transitional” forms are nothing more than circular reasoning - The archaeologist dates his fossil from the geologist, who then dates his layers based on the archaeological fossil record, and bad carbon-14 dating.

Darwin admitted his “theory” had holes, here are a few quotes from the book:

“Why, if species have descended from other species by insensibly fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms.”

“To suppose that the eye, with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest possible degree.”

If numerous species, belonging to the same genera or families, have really started into life all at once, the fact would be fatal to the theory to descent with slow modification though natural selection.

“I concluded that this great group had been suddenly developed at the commencement of the tertiary series This was a sore trouble to me, adding as I thought one more instance of the abrupt appearance of a great group of species. ”

“The case most frequently insisted on by paleontologists of the apparently sudden appearance of a whole group of species, is that of the teleostean fishes, low down in the Chalk period.”

“On the sudden appearance of groups of Allied Species in the lowest known fossilferous strata: There is another and allied difficulty, which is much graver. I allude to the manner in which numbers of species of the same group suddenly appear in the lowest known fossiliferous rocks.”

“Consequently, if my theory be true, it is indisputable that before the lowest Silurian stratum was deposited, long periods elapsed, as long as, or probably far longer than, the whole interval from the Silurian age to the present day; and that during these vast, yet quite unknown, periods of time, the world swarmed with living creatures. To the question why we do not find records of these vast primordial periods, I can give no satisfactory answer.”

“The case at present must remain inexplicable; and may be truly urged as a valid argument against the views here entertained.”

“The several difficulties here discussed, namely our not finding in the successive formations infinitely numerous transitional links between the many species which now exist or have existed; the sudden manner in which whole groups of species appear in our European formations; the almost entire absence, as at present known, of fossiliferous formations beneath the Silurian strata, are all undoubtedly of the gravest nature.”

Humanist Manifesto (1933) – “Humanism is the faith in the supreme value and self-perfectability of human personality.  Based on 15 concepts:
1. The Universe is self-existing and not created.
2. Man is a result of a continuous natural process.
3. Mind is a projection of the body and nothing more.
4. Man is molded mostly by his culture.
5. There is no supernatural.
6. Man has outgrown religion and any idea of God.
7. Man’s goal is the development of his own personality, which ceases to exist at death
8. Man will continue to develop to the point where he will look within himself and o the natural world for the solution to all of his problems
9. All institutions and/or religions that in some wa impede this “human development” must be changed
10. Socialism is the ideal form of economics
11. All mankind deserves to share in the fruits from following the above tenets.
12. Religious forms and ideas of our fathers are inadequate.
13. The quest for the good life is still the central task for mankind.
14. Man is alone responsible for the realization of his dreams.
15. Intelligence and will, bring the good life (fulfilled dreams) about.
Also see: "Das Kapital" - Karl Marx
"Religion is the opiate of the masses",
and "Origin of the Species" - Charles Darwin

Buddhism: Vinaya, Sutta, Abidhamma; Mahayana 5000 volumes; Dhammadada

The three main sects of Buddhism have their own approach to authoritative sacred writings and can be broken down by the following groupings:
Theravada – Tripitaka “The Three Baskets” of scripture sometimes called the Pali canon and is 11 times the size of the Bible.
i. Vinaya Pitaka – discipline basket. contains rules forr the higher class
ii. Sutta Pitaka – teaching basket. contains discourses of the Buddha
iii. Abidhamma Pitaka – metaphysical basket. contains Buddhist theology

Mahayana – scriptures were originally written in Sanskrit and paralleled the Pali canon but have since been translated and added to by the Chinese, Nepalese, and Tibetan people. The Chinese canon alone is nearly 5000 volumes. Nearly any charismatic Mahayana leader’s teachings tend to be fully accepted by his followers as ‘scripture’ making it nearly impossible to learn (much less follow) the voluminous and contradictory writings of the Mahayana Buddhist.

Dhammadada – contains sayings attributed to the Buddha
i. He from whom the delights of the senses fall away as water from the petal of the lotus or a mustard seed from the point of a needle – him do I call Brahmana. (priests and/or scholars of the highest Indian caste)
ii. He who in this world has shaken off the two chains; the chain of Good and the chain of Evil; who is pure and exempt from suffering and passion – him I call Brahmana
iii. He who has rejected that which causes pleasure and that which causes suffering, he who is impassive, liberated from all germs, the hero who has raised himself above all worlds - him do I call a Brahmana

Christianity - The Bible - Alexandrian vs Byzantine Texts

Although Christianity has a couple thousand different denominations - they are primarily reliant on the Bible as THE sacred text for spiritual authority (c.f. ‘sola Scriptura’ of the Reformation) one major exception to this doctrine would be Roman Catholicism which relegates the Bible to third in authoritative prominence behind the infallible word of the Pope and subsequent Catholic councils such as Vatican I held in 1870 and Vatican II held in 1965.

Of the Christians who adhere to the doctrine of “sola Scriptura” there seems to be a growing divide between those that hold the Byzantine Manuscripts (Majority Texts, Latin Vulagte, Textus Receptus, Codex Alexandrinus (Gospels) to be of a more “trustworthy” authority and those that hold that the older Alexandrian Manuscripts (Minority Texts, Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrinus (Except Gospels), are more “trustworthy” and therefore more authoritative.

Proponents of Byzantine Manuscripts hold that because there are “more” they are more trustworthy and further state that antiquity does not equate, necessarily, to a more correct rendering of the original text.

Proponents of Alexandrian Manuscripts (Daniel Wallace, James White, etc) might argue that the errors introduced by the Roman Catholic Church into the hand-copy process have resulted in errors of “co-mmission” whereby additional text has been added by the copyists through the years to, perhaps, favour the Roman Catholic theological disposition. (c.f. John Calvin’s assertion - held by Reformed Tradition today).

This results in delineation of English Bible translations along loyalties to Text-types, and, dare I say, to profitability. For the Byzantine text-types the English translation of choice is the King James Version, and the New King James to a much lesser extent. For the Alexandrian text-types the English translation of choice is currently the NIV for paraphrase and the NASB for literal. The ESV is making a run for the NIV “market” for paraphrase versions as well.

The Acrostic CHAMP can quickly summarise a common apologetic for the reliability of the Bible as Christians are called to be “champions” of the faith and of God’s Word. (Jude 3)
  1. C - Consistency

    1. Internally - Although written by over 40 authors in three languages on three continents over 1500 years, the Bible is consistent internally with itself and contains no contradictions but reads harmoniously as one book.

    2. Externally - It is consistent externally with science (i.e. true scientific findings and not those that are skewed by atheistic bias): Physics, Geology, Anthropology, Archaeology, and even consistent with Medical Science

  2. H - Historicity

    1. Historically Accurate - Civilisations, locations, military excursions, monetary units all found in the Bible - are confirmed to have existed and have thus rendered the Bible as an historically accurate report of events that have taken place

    2. Historical Survivability - Despite 3000 years with a history of persecution, suppression, corruption or outright obliteration at the hands of Near Eastern empires, the Roman Empire, Heretical Groups, the Roman Catholic church, and atheist governments and critics, the Bible has remarkably survived and remains the number 1 best selling book in human history.

  3. A - Archaeological Dependability

    1. 25,000 sites associated with the OT period have been located/excavated in Bible lands. They appear as mounds of earth known as ‘Tels’.

    2. Kings names in hinge sockets, sepulchres etc are ways archaeologists set time periods

    3. The flood – lists of kings from Sumerian scribes (200BC) cataloguing kings and their successive dynasties, times, and tenure showed that an inscribed stone foundation was laid by an unknown kin a few miles from Ur. This list categorizes his dynasty as the ‘3rd after the flood’ 3100 years BC and 1000 years before Abraham.

    4. Abram, Ur of the Chaldees – Critics claimed that Ur did not exist (they hadn’t found it) and that the culture was unrealistic for someone from this area.

      1. UNTIL: 1933 when a palace of Mari was found and 20,000 cuneiform tablets dated at about 2500 BC (same as Abram)

      2. A few miles away, city of Nuzi, more tablets found describing life exactly as Abraham’s

    5. Pentateuch – critics claimed the books could not have been written by Moses because the priestly legislation was far too complex for the time and that writing itself would not have been available to Moses.

      1. UNTIL: 1964-74 when the 17000 ‘Ebla’ tablets were found in N. Syria dated appx. 2250 BC – nearly 1000 years before Moses, laws, customs, and events were recorded verifying the ability to write and have complex legislation

      2. Critics also claimed that the account in Gen 14 of Abraham’s victory over the Chedolaomer
        and Mesopotamian kings was fictitious and that the 5 cities mentioned never existed.

      3. UNTIL: the above ‘Ebla’ tablets which record the cities in the exact order as in Gen. and describe them as flourishing prior to the disaster in ch14.

    6. Many others: Walls of Jericho, evidence of ‘one language’ of Babel, etc.

    7. Luke’s census – NT critics of Luke say he was wrong in that no census was taken, Quirinius was not governor, and no one had to return to their homeland.

      1. UNTIL: archaeological discoveries revealed the existence of a Roman census that took place every 14 yrs and began under Augustus in 23BC or 9BC (mentioned in Luke)

      2. A plaque in N. Syria with the inscription of Quirinius receiving his post (an ‘additional term’ as Josephus reported)

      3. A papyrus was found from this time period which instructed people to ‘return to their governments and the tilled land to which they belonged’

      4. Coins found show the existence of Felix at the time of the apostle Paul, pool of Siloam, pool of Bethesda.

  4. M - Manuscript Reliability

    1. New Testament – 24,633 manuscripts for the NT alone dating back to late 1st century

      1. Oldest is John Rylands fragment of John (AD130)

      2. Codex Vaticanus 325 A.D. Most of entire bible – can be viewed today for 20 minutes

      3. Codex Sinaiticus 350 A.D. almost all NT; half OT

        1. Discovered by Dr. Constantin Von Tischendorf at Mt. Sinai monastery in 1859

        2. Tischy travelled the near east in 1844 in search of biblical mss. He visited St. Catherines monastery and saw 2 baskets of leaves ready to stoke the fire. The leaves had ancient uncials written on them. He sternly warned the monks that the leaves were too precious to stoke fires with and they permitted him to keep the 43 leaves he had recovered (I Chron, Jer, Neh, Ezra) He deposited them in the museum at Leipzig

        3. Tischy returned at a later date amid suspicion from these monks. He offered the steward of the monastery a copy of his personally published Septuagint. The steward remarked, “I too have a copy of the septuagint” and revealed this, the oldest near-complete codex Sinaiticus

      4. Codex Alexandrinus 400 A.D. – nearly the whole bible. written in Greek while in Egypt

    2. Old Testament

      1. Mainly use Masoretic text (900 A.D.) but is verified by Septuagint (LXX) and by the Dead Sea Scrolls (90 A.D.) and other available mss.

        1. LXX (3rd cent. BC) – Hellenistic translation of the Hebrew Canon

        2. Dead Sea Scrolls – (D.S.S.) A.D. 68 found in Qumran caves near Jerusalem by a
          shepherd boy chasing a goat.

        3. Masoretic text – A.D. 916

        4. Transcribing process – they would count every letter from front to point of writing would count every letter of every book, a hairline separation between letters. If the king addresses you while transcribing, ignore him. Not one yod is to be off. Fully bathe and dress in Jewish dress, special ink black only –per the Talmud

  5. P - Prophetic Validation

    1. Jesus 61 major prophecies, 8 of which include:

      1. Born at Bethlehem Mic 5:2 fulfilled Lk 2:4-7

      2. Preceeded by a messenger Isa 40:3 fulfilled Math 3:1,2

      3. Would enter Jerusalem by Donkey Zec 9:9 fulfilled Luke 19:35-37

      4. Betrayed by friend Psa 41:9 fulfilled Math 26

      5. Sold for 30 peices silver: Zec 11:12 fulfilled Math 26:15

      6. Dumb (silent) before accusers: Isa 53:7 fulfilled Math 27:12

      7. Hands and Feet Pierced: Psa 22:16 fulfilled Luke 23:33

      8. Crucified with thieves: Isa 53:12 fulfilled Math 27:38

    2. Destruction of Tyre (New York City of its day) Eze 26:3-21 predicts the following

      1. v8. “Nebuchadnezzar to come against mainland Tyre” which was fulfilled 3 years after prophecy.

        1. A 13 yr siege resulted in Tyre submitting to Babylon suzerainty.

        2. When Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar finally broke the gates of Tyre down, he found a deserted city. They had escaped by ship to an island off the coast.

        3. Nebuchadnezzar couldn’t do anything to stop or pursue them as land-locked Babylon didn’t have a navy

        4. In a rage at their escape, Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the vacated mainland city

        5. The people of Tyre settled on an island off the coast of Tyre where they remained a powerful fortified city for 200 years

      2. v3 “Throw the debris (of the city of Tyre) into the water” which was an odd thing for any army to do to a destroyed city but it was indeed fulfilled by Alexander the Great.

        1. Alexander, like Nebuchadnezzar, did not have a fighting navy

        2. He collected the rubble and debris left behind by the Babylonian destruction of mainland Tyre and threw it into the sea to build a causeway out to the island city of Tyre.

      3. v4 “Make her a bare rock; flat like the top of a rock”. Again this is an odd prediction by the Old Testament Prophet as most destroyed cities remain mounds of debris, dust, ashes, etc yet this ‘flat as a rock’ prophecy was fulfilled, yet again at the same time and by the same person as verse 3 - Alexander the Great.

        1. Alexander the Great’s causeway construction to reach the island-city of Tyre, left the original mainland city site bare and flat (which it is to this day)

      4. v3 “Many nations against Tyre” fulfilled: in 332 B.C. by Alexander the great who had recently failed to build a causeway due to attacks on his workers. He formed a coalition navy from other surrounding port cities (Sidon, Rhodes, Lycia) to sail against Tyre

      5. v5 “Fisherman will spread nets over the site” fulfilled: Fisherman today frequent the area to spread their nets to dry as it is an ideal location for this activity.

      6. v14 “Never to be rebuilt” ultimately fulfilled in 1291 by Muslim invaders.

        1. The city continued to be built and rebuilt long after Alexander and was occupied by the Eastern Roman Empire (Eastern Orthodox Church) for hundreds of years. when it was occupied by Christians.
        2. It was eventually utterly destroyed in 1291 AD by the Muslims
        3. It has remained desolate, unbuilt, and uninhabited to the present day.
        4. 10 million gallons of fresh water pour from this ‘port’ location into the sea every day yet miraculously, the Word of God remains fulfilled regarding the perpetual desolation of Tyre!

      7. v21 “Never to be found again” – The entire renown of Tyre now exists only in a shellfish and purple dye” – Pliny the elder (1st century A.D).

How To Interpret The Bible

From time to time, the erroneous assumption is made that the “Bible can be made to say anything you want it to say!”. This usually comes from a complete and utter ignorance of the universal truth that all words have meaning and words grouped together in a phrase or sentence have a central meaning and paragraphs and chapters grouped into books have some sort of meaning. But how do we get to that meaning? That is where hermeneutics comes in:

Hermeneutics, which is the “art and science of interpretation”, is the discipline to arrive at the exact meaning of a written passage whether it is sacred or secular. And it is this exact practice which enables the Bible-believing Christian to arrive at a “sound” interpretation and meaning of a given passage or book of the Bible and how it is to be applied to one’s life today.

I’ve listed seven hermeneutical principles below which I’ve found helpful when attempting to interpret Scripture or other ancient literature that I’ve read (Clement’s First Epistle, Augustine’s Confessions, etc). The principles below will help when applied to ANY literature or text and can then assist us in safely interpreting the original meaning of the original author of that text.

  1. Who is the audience of the original author? i.e who was he/she writing to?

  2. What was the intent of the original writing? why was he/she writing the piece in the first place?

  3. What is the context of the passage or chapter within the work itself? i.e. what is written in the pages before and after this passage?

  4. How does this passage or chapter fit within the rest of the written work? i.e. is it harmonious with the rest of the author’s intent?

  5. What cultural context should be taken into consideration? What culture was the author writing from or to? are there practices that are specific to that particular geo-political region, etc?

  6. How reliable is the copy that you read? i.e. how close is it to the original written work. Are there copyist errors to consider?

  7. What literary devices are being employed by the author: is it poetry? fictional narrative to teach a central theme? literal instruction? etc.

The following list is one I found from Joseph Whitchurch’s “Apologetics For The Heart and Mind”. I thought it was very good and definitely worthy of mention. He covers many of the principles I mentioned above but adds even more for clarification in a more specific Biblical interpretive sense.

Practical Biblical Interpretation in ten general rules - Joseph Whitchurch

  1. Interpret the Bible literally (from the words, not foolishly wooden), like any other book.
    Read everything in context.

  2. Apply yourself to the story/teaching, using empathy. Ask “Why does God do/say this?”

  3. Use passages of teaching to interpret historical accounts, but do not play “Paul vs. Jesus”.

  4. Use the explicit to interpret the implicit; use the clear to interpret the obscure.(my emphasis!)

  5. Determine definitions carefully. Note multiple possible definitions of one word. Do not always pour ultimate meaning into each word.

  6. Note parallelism. Use nearby parallel verses to interpret a difficult verse.

  7. Distinguish between proverb and law; distinguish between case law (if…then) and direct law (You shall…).

  8. Recognize both the spirit and the letter of the law.

  9. Be careful with parables—they often present time-specific analogies. Look for one central point.

  10. Be careful with predictive prophecy; look for explanations elsewhere. See also Knowing Scripture by R.C. Sproul

VIII. Abbreviated Bibliography
1 - Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance
2 - NKJV (Transliteration) Bible
3 - NIV (Paraphrase) Bible
4 - A.W. Tozer, “Knowledge of the Holy”
5 – Dennis McCallum, “An Approach to Christian Apologetics” , Xenos Church publication
6 – Van Gorden, Kurt “Why Christians Believe the Trinity”, Jude 3 Missions publication
7 – KJV (Poetic/transliteration) Bible “are there” is implied...not in Textus Receptus
8 – Craig, William Lane “A Reasonable Faith”
9 – Shelley, Bruce “Church History in Plain Language”
10 – Edwards, Betty “Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain” pp.
11 – Lavey, Anton “Satanic Bible”
12 – Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary 2nd ed., 1983
13 – Cowan, Stephen B.. Ed. “5 Views on Apologetics”, 2000
14 – Geisler, Norman “Evolution Video Series”’
15 – Darwinismrefuted.com
16 - Cowan, Stephen B article review “5 Views on Apologetics, www.a180.net

17 - Drurie, Mark Phd. article “appendix: Historical Evidence for Jesus (Yeshua)”
18 – Haanagraff, Hendrik “Christianity In Crisis” Appendix
19 – Mcdowell, Josh “Evidence That Demands a Verdict”
20 – Whitchurch, Joseph B. Teaching material for AFTHAM (Apologetics For The HeartAnd Mind) 1995-97
21 - Concerned Christians, “Witness to Mormons” , 1983
22. – Utah Lighthouse Ministry, article www.ch-of-christ.beaverton.or.us/mormon_beginnings_3.htm

Confucianism: Five Classics - Changes, Anals, Poetry, Ceremonies, Anals of Spring and Autumn; Four Books - Analects, Great Learning, Doctrine of the Mean, Book of Mencius

Confucianism: 9 Main Writings or “Books”

The Five Classics – Wu Jing - collected manuscripts of the ancients which Confucius edited and annotated with commentaries. He put these works into 4 books and wrote the 5th one himself. They have gone through much editing and alteration:
i. The Book of Changes (I Ching) – a collection of 8 triagrams and 64 hexagrams consisting of solid and broken lines. Supposed to have great power if the key were ever found.
ii. The Book of Anals (Shu K’ing) A work of history of the 5 prior Chinese dynasties to Confucius time.
iii. The Book of Poetry (Shih Ching) An ancient book of poetry believed by Confucius to make one virtuous.
iv. The Book of Ceremonies (Li Chi) Taught man to act in an honorable way like the ancients (an important value to Confucius)
v. The Anals of Spring and Autumn (Ch’un Ch’iu) Commentaries written by Confucius on the state of Lu during Confucius time.

The Four Books – Si Shu – “The Teachings of Confucious” used by him for teaching, some were written by his disciples and some comprise his teachings and others collected into the following works:
i. The Analects – The sayings of Confucius, collected by his followers. Contains biographical information of Confucius.
ii. The Great Learning
iii. The Doctrine of the Mean – details the relationship of man to the universal order.
iv. The Book of Mencius – The 1st exposition on Confucianism ever written.

Hinduism: Vedas - Mantras, Brahmanas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita

Hindu Sacred or Religious Writings:

Although there is voluminous sacred writings for the Hindu, much of the authority of Hinduism lies with the Priestly caste and/or the gurus that have supposedly attained enlightenment and for a fee, will share it with a devotee. A few gurus have been made famous by celebrities from the western world: Baghran Shri Rajneesh and Maharishi Mahesh Yogi to name a couple.

Second to the Guru and Priest are the writings for the Hindu which are as follows:

The Vedas (knowledge or wisdom) 1400 BC – 500 AD  comprised of the mantras (hymns of praise), brahmanas (guide for ritual rites),  and the Upanishads (teachings on religious truth or doctrine).
i. contains: law books, Ramayana & Maabharata,  Puranas, aqamas, sultras,and the bhakti (devotions to gods)
ii. describes the religion of the Aryans via the writings of “Holy men” or rishis (seers). sruti – all that is heard; smriti – all that is remembered
iii. Describes a number of deities who are mostly personifications of natural phenomena: storms, fire, etc. (c.f. animism)

The Upanishads (secret teaching) 800-600 BC
i. the “later” Vedas which reflect the development of Pantheism: Brahman also the concept of “Atman is Brahman”; and maya the creation of the unreal.
ii. spoke of a multitude of gods

Bhagavad Gita – inspired but of lesser authority because it is smriti and not sruti
i. the “New Testament” of Hinduism which records a conversation between the prince Arjuna and his charioteer Krishna (the incarnation of the god Vishnu) condoning personal devotion to deity.

Islam: The Qu'ran The Sunna - Hadith

Islam has a series of writings: Primarily the Qu’ran and the Sunna although there are purportedly four inspired books of Scripture which god has revealed to man according to the Muslim. (article 3 of 5)

a. The Law of Moses - although they believe that Ishmael received the blessing of Abraham and not Isaac as the Jewish and Christian faiths believe.

b. Psalms of David

c. Gospel of Jesus Christ - They believe that Jesus was a great teacher and some believe he was a prophet but not the incarnation of Almighty God as the Christians believe.

d. The Koran (Qu’ran). Wherever the first 3 disagree with the Qu’ran, the Muslim feels that they have been corrupted. According to the Muslim, the Qu’ran supersedes all other revelations and is Allah’s final word to man. c.f. Mormonism and the 'Book of Mormon'

The Sunna
“The Sunna” in Arabic simply means, “a clear or well trodden path”.  It is all that Muhammad said, did, condoned, or condemned and is the record of Muhammad’s sayings, customs, teachings, or the lifestyle example that he left for his devotees to follow (c.f Joseph Smith and the “Sayings of Joseph Smith”.  Muslims believe Muhammad to be the perfect example for all people  This is found in the Qu’ran here:
If you love Allah, then follow me (Muhammad) -Sura 3:31 (Shakir)
Ye have indeed in the Apostle of Allah a beautiful pattern of (conduct) for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day. -Sura 33:21 (Yusuf Ali)
Everything Muhammad did or said is the foundation for all life and belief.  The Sunna is clearly of equal importance to the Muslim as the Qu’ran. This is because the Sunna interprets the Quran and without it, the Quran could not be properly understood, let alone applied.  most aspects of the Islamic faith are not even mentioned in the Quran but are found only in the Sunna. (c.f. Roman Catholic Christianity) As it is, both the Quran and the Sunna are believed to be inspired and authoritative.

Judaism: The Torah, Talmud, and Midrash

Torah – “The Law” written by Moses (possibly finished by Joshua; Edited by the Prophet Ezra)
Talmud – Not “scripture” but VERY highly regarded Jewish library of oral law and tradition consisting of Mishnah (oral law in general to be distinguished from scripture) and Gemara (commentary based upon the Mishnah).
Midrash – like the Talmud in terms of authority – is a commentary on the Torah and rest of Jewish scriptures.

Taoism: Tao Te King  “The Way and Its Power”

Taosim: Tao Te King  “The Way and Its Power” also known as the Lao Tzu. Written by Lao Tzu himself, it is a little booklet of about 5000 words (about 15 pages)

Quran and Bible Comparison

What Is the Difference Between The Bible and The Qur'an?

Monotheistic, Trinitarian, as referenced in Isa 43:10; 44:6-8; Matt. 28:19; 2 Cor 13:14

Jesus is God incarnate - Colossians 2:9

Jesus was crucified on a cross - 1 Peter 2:24

Jesus rose from the dead - John 2:19-20

Jesus was the only Son of God - Mark 1:1

Holy Spirit, 3rd person in the Godhead. He will bear witness of Jesus - John 14:26; 15:26

Salvation by grace through faith - Ephesians 2:8,9

The Devil is a fallen angel
- Isaiah 14:12-15; Created by Jesus - Col 1:15,16

Man is basically evil (fallen sinner)
- Romans 3:23

Disciples were followers of Christ (Christians) - Acts 11:26

Worship on Sabbath - Exodus 20; Then later on Sunday - Rom 14:5-6; Acts 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:1-2

Miracles, numerous are recorded

Makes numerous prophecies

Written by 40+ authors over 1500 years - reads as one book


Monotheistic as referenced in 5:73; 112:1-4, Denies the Trinity in 5:73

Jesus is not God - 5:17, 75

Jesus was not crucified at all - 4:157

Jesus did not rise from the dead - various Muslim accounts

Jesus was not the Son of God but rather a "prophet" - 9:30 - only 1 of 25 prophets listed in the Qur'an and 1 of 125,000 in the history of Islam. God Has No Sons

The Holy Spirit is the angel Gabriel - 2:97; 16:102

Salvation by sincerity and works - 3:135; 7-8-9; 21:47; 49:14; 66:8-9 also by dying for the cause of Allah - Hadith, Sura 3:157

The Devil, Satan, is not a fallen angel, but a fallen Jinn (Genie) - 2:34; 7:12; 15:27; 55:15

Man is basically good - Typical cleric teaching (contradicts a buried passage in Sura 12:53 which agrees w/ the Bible

Disciples declare themselves Muslims - 5:111

Worship on Friday
- 62:9

No Miracles recorded, except they claim the Qur'an is a miracle

Makes no prophecies

Written by 1 man over 23 years

Baghavad Gita and Bible Compared

To see a flowchart of how the world religions above came into existence and inter-relate to one another, visit our Comparing World Religions page.

To see a HUGE side by side comparison of all world religions, visit our Religion Comparison Chart.

To see what each religion says about what happens when you die, visit our What Happens When I Die? page.