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Philosophy of Politics - What is The Best Method By Which A Society Should Be Governed?



  1. Left – Communism, Socialism, Globalism, Statism, Secularism

  2. Center –Libertarianism, Pacifism, Anarchism/Nihilism, Social Democracy

  3. Right – Direct Democracy, Representative Republic, Monarchy, Theocracy


  1. Left on The Political Spectrum

    1. Globalism - The prevailing political attitude of the 21st century whereby the interests of the world as a whole overrule the interests of a particular nation or individual. The early attempts at globalism include the failed "League of Nations" which was an international organizational response to the nationalism and arms race that was said to have brought on World War I. It failed due to existing national exceptionalism found in the world powers of that day: England, France etc. The second attempt at globalism was the formation of the United Nations after World War II. This institution has been largely ineffective at carrying out true globalist policy in that it has historically relied on the U.S. military to provide a 'bite' to its international bureaucratic 'bark'. This has led to the establishment of environmental, economic, and social policy along with military action via global organizations like INTERPOL and the UN. This perspective is opposite of “nationalism” on the political spectrum.

    2. Secularism – Sometimes used in conjunction with or in the place of, humanism in a political sense. Secularism – derived from the Latin word secularis or “world”. It is a political stance that asserts that since the world and the universe is all that exists, all government should conduct itself and express itself accordingly. To the secularists, this is accomplished via the removal of all mention and association with religion or the supernatural of any kind. This “social” methodology of governance seeks to re-educate the populace to accept that only manmade solutions are “real” and “relevant” and all other views of the supernatural are suppressed and/or marginalized.

    3. Communism - a political system of governance founded by Karl Marx whereby all property is “public-owned” which translates to “government-owned” which then equates to the public having little to do whatsoever with property, commerce, or distribution whatsoever. Each citizen works and is paid according to their abilities and needs. Normally, communism attempts to overthrow existing governmental infrastructures by way of class warfare, pitting the lower and middle classes of a society against the higher or highest classes (i.e. the ones with power and influence) i.e. 99% vs the 1%. This results in animosity and if successful, a violent coup or takeover via populist-leaning political powers. Unfortunately, history has shown us that the corruption at the heart of mankind results in a government which filters and skims most of the “public” proceeds leaving a society overcrowded, cramped into multi family living quarters, hungry, and destitute of purpose. This is a far more “hardline” approach to “community ownership” and governance than that of its little sister socialism. Along with facism and socialism, communism is one of three primary forms of collectivism. Communists are often referred to as leftist, liberal, progressive, radicals, sometimes mistakenly referred to as “socialists”

    4. Socialism - A philosophy or system of governance whereby production, distribution, and large scale commerce are either owned or highly regulated by government which is comprised of officials that are put in place via a limited election process. Adherents and the system’s founder, Karl Marx, define it as governing by the community as a whole, although it rarely works out this way. In most socialist governments in the world today, an even smaller few rule over an even greater majority than in a true democracy or representative republic. Marx believed socialism to be a transitional social state between capitalism and communism. Along with communism and fascism, socialism is one of three primary forms of collectivism. Other names associated with socialism are leftists, nanny state, progressivism, social democracy, communism, marxism, labor, entitlement state

    5. Liberalism - Widely considered “leftist” on the political spectrum with a decided socialist or communist approach to governance in its call for big government or total government involvement or ‘regulation’ in the lives of its citizenry. The liberal’s (recently adopted moniker “progressives” to shed the negative connotation with the ter “liberal”) approach to economic governance is in keeping with Karl Marx, the founder of communism, in that liberals condemn free market capitalism as the height of greed and source of all social and economic woes (c.f. Michael Moore/Hollywood narratives in general). Liberalism calls for a common holding of all taxes, land, and goods which are then redistributed by a “utopian-minded” government to solve the social and economic woes of society. Socially, liberalism is Darwinian and humanist in approach, which randomly borrows ethics and morals from the Judaeo-Christian worldview (conservative), without crediting, much less adhering to the Deity which claims to be the source of those ethics and morals.

    6. Statism – The underlying philosophy of government that contends for the supremacy of government in all affairs of its citizenry: politically, economically, morally, religiously, and otherwise. A statist will hold that the ultimate duty of government is to provide the basis for all around existence. This is accomplished by establishing state-controlled elections by determining who can and can’t vote and what system should be used to “tally” the votes. c.f. “its not who votes that holds the power but who counts the votes. Economically, the state establishes heavily regulated monopolies and markets that are controlled and determined by that government. c.f. tech industry and big national banking. Morally, statism finds it necessary to provide and control education of its masses that are in keeping with the chief interests of the state itself. c.f. government run schools, government endorsed higher education, and politically correct indoctrination. Religiously, statism will regulate religion by way of taxation (501c3) and the declaration of legal religious groups and illegal groups (fundamentalists, extremists, and “cultists”). Examples from history would be the Roman Empire, Nazi Germany, and Stalinist Russia. Examples of statism in current political systems would be Globalist E.U., Communist China, and recent leftist American politics. Statism can be found in all positions of the political spectrum but has been placed in the “leftist” category due to its overwhelming acceptance by communism, socialism, and liberal political thinking. Opposite political idealisms to statism would be representative republics (rightist U.S.) and theocratic world views (Christianity, Islamic Sharia law)

  2. Center On The Political Spectrum

    1. Egalitarianism - The political position that declares that all citizens are of total equality, especially with regards to political, economic, and social policies and interests. It is most common among socialist and communist ideologies - although it is rarely practiced among such governments. i.e France, Cuba, Italy, Great Britain, China, North Korea. Australia seems to operate primarily by an egalitarian political world view today.

    2. Democratic Democracy - A system of government whereby the power resides in the hands of the people by way of majority vote. Democracies exert their governmental power through frequent general and free elections. This can be accomplished at times with limited administrative representation but in a genuine democracy, the people vote on all public policy, social machinations, military, foreign relations, taxation, and economic policy are all set by a vote of the people in conjunction with the administration of elected officials. This 'purist' form of democracy today only exists in concept only and is referred to sometimes as "Direct Democracy" and as such does not currently exist among first or second world nations (second world meaning "limited industrialization, etc.". Many Representative and Social Republics today are mistaken for democracies and have even coined the term "preserving the world for democracy" even while those governments are not democracies themselves.

    3. Anarchism - The political philosophy which contends that all governmental authority is useless and undesirable. The anarchist opts instead for a voluntary community of cooperation, affiliation, and association of societal groups and individual citizens. This sounds nice on paper, however, there isn’t answer for the inevitable conflicts that arise when two groups clamor for prioritization regarding issues that they face. The inevitable rise of hegemony by way of social affiliation would be the result. Anarchists cannot provide a solution for “who goes first” or which individual gets the nod when two people require the same singular resource at precisely the same time. Four-way stop sign intersections would be a nightmare in this system of “non-governance.” In order for the anarchist to address these issues and develop a system of prioritization at any level – would then result in the necessity of a governing system and thereby an authority over the “system”. Both system and administrator would destroy the very core of the anarchist society which operates by “non authority” and “non governance”.

    4. Centrism or Moderate - The political position of the moderate whereby radical change of the left (liberal) or the right (conservative) is scorned for a more "please everyone" approach to political reform by employing a gradual change and repeated compromise in policy. The idea being that general appeasement through compromise is the solution to social and economic woes. However, critics would say the following flaws plague centrism: "He who stands for everything - stands for nothing" and "You can please some of the people some of the time but you can never please all of the people all of the time." In social matters, the moderate tends to lean to the left and in economics to the right, somewhat.

    5. Pacifism - The position whereby resistance to government or authority is scorned in an effort to "pacify" those in power and maintain the status quo. This attitude is found in those who call themselves "liberal, moderate, or conservative" yet refuse to vote - which belies the underlying political philosophy of pacifism. Many who scorn participation in the affairs of governance (politics) can usually be identified with pacifistic tendencies. This is more often used in the modern vernacular as a descriptor of a praxeology or methodology than a political philosophy or world view in that it usually pertains to someone who is in direct opposition to military conflict of any sort usually due to moral objections or religious convictions i.e. Amish, Mennonites, and Transcendentalists, are usually pacifists.

      1. Laissez Faire - This is more a "creed" against government interference in public and economic policy beyond the bare minimum to protect and maintain geo-political peace (secure national borders) and the personal property of the individual. This goes a bit beyond “pacifism” and “anarchism” Because of this, military action outside the role of national protection is usually condemned by laissez-faire.

    6. Libertarianism - This is the extreme embodiment of laissez-faire as a governmental system. Although there is a more strict condemnation of military action than the typical laissez-faire approach, libertarianism maintains a very similar set of ideals with regards to individual rights and freedoms while condemning a "big government" or "big brother" state.

    7. Nihilism – EXTREME center - political belief that all established authority is corrupt and must be destroyed in order to rebuild a just society - i.e the idea that to succeed in a Democracy, we must always “vote out all incumbents” or “out with old in with the new”

  3. Right On The Political Spectrum

    1. Conservatism - One of the most ill-defined political philosophies in the world today. Often referred to as “preferring an existing or traditional situation” which is incorrect. Conservatism is a political philosophy which calls for small or highly limited government and free market system which establishes the best product or service at the best price due to healthy competition within the marketplace. Conservatism condemns the high taxes required by progressive or liberal political system which fund big government. Socially, conservatism tends toward a more Judaeo-Christian moral structure with approach to governance versus the Darwinian humanist social emphasis of progressives and liberal social governance. Referred to as “rightist” on the political spectrum.

    2. Representative Republic - A form of governance modled after ancient Greek and Roman governments circa1st-2nd century B.C. This government infrastructure consists of a hierarchy of elected officials who act as "representatives" acting on behalf of their constituencies (ideally) in casting votes which form public policy, social machinations, military, foreign relations, taxation, and economic policies, etc. Policies such as 2, 4, and 6 year terms and overall term limits are put in place to prevent an imbalance of power. Because these officials are put in place by public vote, this system of government is often confused with a democracy and like a democracy, there are loopholes for abuse whereby votes by the elected officials are manipulated special interest groups, lobbyists, and outright bribery. (c.f. United States "Obamacare" kickback scandals). Abuses like this result in representatives voting according to their own interests when it comes to taxation and military action and not necessarily the "will" of their constituents.

    3. Monarchy - A method of governance defined by the absolute sovereignty of a single individual. Usually this chief of state either establishes a hereditary line or is a part of an already-established hereditary line of monarchs. The UK is considered a "monarchy" but the role of royalty in state affairs is primarily determined by a parliament and the Prime Minister. The UK resembles more of a socialist republic than it does a monarchy today but many second and third world nations still have established monarchies.

    4. Totalitarianism – The extreme version of “statism” which involves governance by complete control over all aspects of society. Totalitarianism differs from statism in that it projects a much thinner veil of citizen “rights” or “participation” in government. Totalitarianism also tends to rally more around a charismatic leader than the actual state itself. i.e. Stalin vs Marx. Judges and law enforcement operate by unwavering, unrelenting, and merciless obedience to the central governor or government. Public executions without judicial process are commonplace for this form of government. Media is simply a voice of propaganda for the state and any critical voice is deemed unproductive and therefore, illegal. Educational systems introduce, maintain, and reinforce the agenda of the state while elections are state-selected candidates with state-determined outcomes. Totalitarianism has been evident in both left and right positions of the political spectrum. Some examples are: Left – Stalinist Russia, Jong-Un N. Korea; Right – Nazi Germany, Iran – pseudo-theocracy

      1. Fascism - A method of governing whereby social organization is achieved via nationalism and enthusiastic support of a central charismatic leader. It has, in the past, exalted a particular race or nation over others as in the case with Germany in 1932-1944, but this is more an exception than the rule as it is usually a party-led fight for national prominence and growth via a centralized and autocratic leader. c.f. Venezuela, and some Central African nations. Like communism, this system involves stringent social regimentation for the “better of the state” and usually there is a high level of suppression of opposition which preserves the fascist government’s control of the populace. This method of governance is often used synonymously with the term “dictatorship” or "totalitarianism". Along with communism and socialism, it is one of three primary forms of collectivism. The argument for this position of governance is the absence (usually) of red tape and bureaucracies which have been known to delay major national decisions. The problem is that reform is usually impossible outside of removing the fascist in power. (Most dictators don't see a need to reform themselves just everyone else)

      2. Autocracy - One person with absolute & unchallenged authority. Often used synonymously with fascism, despotism, totalitarianism etc. The current political environment in post-communist Russia would greatly resemble an autocratic governance with Putin acting as an unchallenged authority, arresting and oppressing opposition

      3. Statismsee statism under “left of spectrum” above.

    5. Nationalism - The political mindset that holds one particular nation superior to all other nations with regards to culture, heritage, interests, methodology, and an overall way of life. i.e. American exceptionalism. With the rise of Globalism, nationalism has quickly been regarded as misplaced and misguided enthusiasm by a fanatical few. c.f. American mainstream media's approach to the grassroots Tea Party movement. Nationalism has seen a sharp decline in the west but seems to be on the rise in some of the newer first world nations like Brazil and China. This political perspective is opposite the spectrum of globalism.

      1. Jingoism – A pejorative term used to describe extreme nationalism and militarism. Usually a person who is overly occupied with “patriotism” is referred to negatively as a jingoist. The term is sometimes interchangeable with “superpatriotism”. Although the term is currently used disparagingly for anyone with nationalistic pride, the term’s first usage in 1878 denoted a foreign policy that included a “cry for war” or intimidation and threats to achieve effective foreign policy and national security of foreign interests. Nations that utilize this policy today are China toward Japan, Russia toward Ukraine, and some U.S. ultraconservatives toward Middle East nations harboring Islamic terrorists. The derogatory usage of this term today is usually levied by left wing globalists who tend to subsequently overlook the same behavior in leftist countries that embrace their political world view.

    6. Nepotism - Although most commonly used today as an individual methodology in the context of employment, this can be considered a method of governance within a given government infrastructure. It is the practice of appointing favorites, usually relatives, to ideal positions primarily based on kinship as opposed to qualification. This was a fairly common practice within the hierarchy of the the Catholic Church whereby Popes, Cardinals, and Bishops would appoint their relatives to church positions. Today the political practice is most evident in American politics with the President appointing key positions within a Representative Republic to family and friends. i.e. Pres. John Kennedy appointing his brother Robert Kennedy to Attorney General, etc.

    7. Imperialism - A nearly extinct system of governance whereby a particular government seeks to expand its own influence and power usually by military action or "strong-handed" foreign policy. Soviet Russia accused the United States of this policy repeatedly during the cold war years (1947-1987). Whereas Soviet Russia expanded its territory by way of military action (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Afghanistan) and heavy-handed foreign policy (overuse of veto or "Nyet!" during U.N. General Counsel sessions) during this period more than any other nation on earth. Nazi Germany was a fairly accurate example of Imperialism during the events that led up to World War II. Whereas the United States and Great Britain have had a history of imperialism during the 20th century, this political philosophy seems to be a dying albatross in light of today's pervasive emphasis on globalism.

    8. Theocratic – From the Greek words “theo” (god) and “krateo” (rule of). It is a method of governance where priests, clerics, or supreme religious leaders disseminate the law and justice of the land. A similar term is “ecclesiocracy” where there is a large amount of leadership, guidance, and involvement of religious leaders but there isn’t a claim to hold and operate in the position by way of “divine providence”. An ancient form of theocracy would have been Israel under Moses, Joshua, and the Judges that followed up until the appointment of Saul as their first king. A modern version of a “loose” theocracy would be many of the Islamic states in the Middle East which are governed loosely by clerics and state appointed “Prime Ministers”. Often times these Islamic theocracies tend more toward totalitarianism or fascism.

    9. Hegemony - The political approach whereby a dominance of one social, economic, political, ideological, or cultural group is exerted over all others. Nearly all democracies, republics, socialist, and communist governmental systems exhibit hegemony at some level, no political system is immune to this pervasive approach to governance.

    10. Oligarchy - A system of governance where a small group exerts inordinate control over a larger community (the tail wags the dog) usually in a manner that serves corrupt or self-serving goals. A very close cousin to the politically incorrect “aprtheid” method of rule. e.g. The lobbyists in Washington D.C. exercise a great deal of control over the U.S. Senate which in turn exercises a great deal of control over the United States.
  1. Questions To Determine One’s Political World View And Examples of How Various Views Might Answer:

    1. How should society be managed or “governed”?

      1. Communism – Society should pool its total resources and appoint a board and chairman to oversee the equal distribution of all goods and each should work according to his ability and each should receive according to his need.

      2. Socialism – Society should turn over all major industry to government control while permitting smaller and medium business ownership to provide for basic health needs and welfare.

      3. Theocracy – Society should be run by one or more representatives of God and ensure that the community operates by the laws spelled out by that God through the leader’s interpretation of sacred writings.

      4. Democracy – The majority should make the governing decisions of the land by way of popular vote, judicial, and legislative decision and impose regulation on major industry to prevent abuse while permitting (and regulating) medium and small business

      5. Monarchy – A competent leader in the form of a King or Queen who follows an upright & good moral code should make the governing decisions of land with input from nobility.

      6. Anarchy – All organized government is bad and unnecessary. Society should be allowed to just exist and live free in the land doing as they deem best without any interference of a governmental structure.

      7. Globalism – There should a mass unification of all societies on earth and national divisions and boundaries should be done away with to facilitate a worldwide freedom and interaction between all citizens. It should be governed by representatives of all major hemispheres

      8. Biblical – We should abide peacefully and obediently by the authority that we have been placed under while looking to the future return and reign of God incarnate in the person of Jesus Christ, a Divine Monarchy which is the only perfect government there can be.


    2. Who is best qualified in a given society to lead that society?

      1. Democracy: A Majority Of People is the most fair leadership a society can ask for

      2. Communism: The State itself as set up by the people should lead the society

      3. Monarchy, Facism: A Single Person is best to lead a society as there are no bureaucracies or red tape to get things done. Just one person who is the most capable to do the job.

      4. Theocracy: Priests or Clerics have the word of God for governing the land so who best to lead than the very representatives of God Himself?

      5. Representative Republic: Representatives of People should be elected by the people and represent their best interests in legislative meetings where leadership is required.

      6. Socialism: A combination of Representatives and The State

      7. Anarchy: No one person or organized group should lead, we should all lead ourselves as qualified individuals of our own lives & not mess with anyone else – no taxes necessary.

      8. Biblical: The King of Kings – Jesus Christ is the most qualified person to lead as He is the Creator and Sustainer of all things, no one is more qualified or more wise or just to lead.

    3. In A Wealthy Country, Who Should Own That Wealth?

      1. Communism: Government should own all the wealth then distribute it according to each person’s need.

      2. Meritocracy: Individuals who earned it with innovation and/or hard work should own the wealth that they have worked for. If a man doesn’t work, neither shall he eat.

      3. Oligarchy: Individuals of Nobility or Rank – Those who were born with it, should then distribute it by creating employment, giving to the church, etc.

      4. Socialism: Most should be owned by government to avoid being oppressed by the “rich” but some should be owned by the people to give them a sense of “freedom”

      5. Theocracy: The Church/Mosque/Synagogue/Temple should own it all and then distribute it according to each person’s need so that “no man lacks”

      6. Biblical: God, the Creator of all things, is the owner of all things (Psalm 89:11), all land, all wealth, and all people with or without wealth are His and His alone (Psalm 24:1; Haggai 2:8). We bring nothing into the world and we take nothing from the world - it is therefore not ours but belongs to someone else (Timothy 6:7)

        1. It is Almighty God Himself who gives to each of us the very ability to create wealth - it does not come from ourselves and our supposed “natural abilities”.(Deuteronomy 8:17-18)

        2. By His word we, as created beings, are given stewardship of all his creation: His earth and the wealth within it. (I Corinthians 4:2) We are told to trust Him with our wealth by providing for the poor and those in need. (Malachi 3:10-11)We are to loan without usury and without expectation of being paid back. If we are asked for our robe, we are to give our tunic as well. (Matthew 5:40) We are to love others as we currently love ourselves and this is demonstrated by our generosity and hospitality to others.

        3. When we die and stand before our Maker, we will give an account for everything of God’s that He put under our stewardship and care.(Romans 14:12; Luke 16:11-12)

Now that you’ve examined various Philosophies of Politics, click on the icons below to take a look at the other elements that comprise a person’s world view:

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